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Symbol Reslove

基本原理

链接器在处理目标文件时,需要对目标文件中的某些位置进行重定位,即将符号指向恰当的位置,确保程序正常执行。例如,当程序调用了一个函数时,相关的调用指令必须把控制流交给适当的目标执行地址。

在 ELF 文件中,对于每一个需要重定位的 ELF 节都有对应的重定位表,比如说 .text 节如果需要重定位,那么其对应的重定位表为 .rel.text。

举个例子,当一个程序导入某个函数时,.dynstr 就会包含对应函数名称的字符串,.dynsym 中就会包含一个具有相应名称的符号(Elf_Sym),在 .rel.plt 中就会包含一个指向这个符号的的重定位表项。即,这几者之间的引用关系是

image-20201029230806649

总的来说,plt 表项主要进行了如下的函数调用来解析目标函数

_dl_runtime_resolve(link_map_obj, reloc_index)

具体操作

_dl_runtime_resolve

32 位和 64 位具有不同的 _dl_runtime_resolve 函数,32 位的版本如下

        .text
        .globl _dl_runtime_resolve
        .type _dl_runtime_resolve, @function
        cfi_startproc
        .align 16
_dl_runtime_resolve:
        cfi_adjust_cfa_offset (8)
        _CET_ENDBR
        pushl %eax                # Preserve registers otherwise clobbered.
        cfi_adjust_cfa_offset (4)
        pushl %ecx
        cfi_adjust_cfa_offset (4)
        pushl %edx
        cfi_adjust_cfa_offset (4)
        movl 16(%esp), %edx        # Copy args pushed by PLT in register.  Note
        movl 12(%esp), %eax        # that `fixup' takes its parameters in regs.
        call _dl_fixup                # Call resolver.
        popl %edx                # Get register content back.
        cfi_adjust_cfa_offset (-4)
        movl (%esp), %ecx
        movl %eax, (%esp)        # Store the function address.
        movl 4(%esp), %eax
        ret $12                        # Jump to function address.
        cfi_endproc
        .size _dl_runtime_resolve, .-_dl_runtime_resolve

其中

因此这部分代码可以简化为

        .text
        .globl _dl_runtime_resolve
        .type _dl_runtime_resolve, @function
        .align 16
_dl_runtime_resolve:
        pushl %eax                # Preserve registers otherwise clobbered.
        pushl %ecx
        pushl %edx
        movl 16(%esp), %edx        # Copy args pushed by PLT in register.  Note
        movl 12(%esp), %eax        # that `fixup' takes its parameters in regs.
        call _dl_fixup                # Call resolver.
        popl %edx                # Get register content back.
        movl (%esp), %ecx
        movl %eax, (%esp)        # Store the function address.
        movl 4(%esp), %eax
        ret $12                        # Jump to function address.
        .size _dl_runtime_resolve, .-_dl_runtime_resolve

即,_dl_runtime_resolve 保存了 eax,ecx,edx 三个寄存器后,然后把 link_map 的地址放到 eax 中,把待解析的符号的偏移放到 edx 中。然后就去执行 _dl_fixup 函数。在函数执行返回后,会按照如下的顺序执行

  • 先恢复 edx 寄存器的值
  • 然后 恢复 ecx 的值
  • 然后把 _dl_fixup 函数的返回值放到当前的栈上
  • 然后恢复 eax 的值
  • 执行 ret $12,此时栈上为
    • 待解析的函数的地址
    • original eax
    • link_map 的地址
    • reloc_offset

64 位下的 _dl_runtime_resolve 与 32 位下类似,有几点主要的区别

  • 在刚进入函数时,会保存更多的信息
  • _dl_fixup 会使用 rdi 和 rsi 传参
  • 最后执行目标函数时使用的是 jmp 指令
        .globl _dl_runtime_resolve
        .hidden _dl_runtime_resolve
        .type _dl_runtime_resolve, @function
        .align 16
        cfi_startproc
_dl_runtime_resolve:
        cfi_adjust_cfa_offset(16) # Incorporate PLT
        _CET_ENDBR
# if DL_RUNTIME_RESOLVE_REALIGN_STACK
#  if LOCAL_STORAGE_AREA != 8
#   error LOCAL_STORAGE_AREA must be 8
#  endif
        pushq %rbx                        # push subtracts stack by 8.
        cfi_adjust_cfa_offset(8)
        cfi_rel_offset(%rbx, 0)
        mov %RSP_LP, %RBX_LP
        cfi_def_cfa_register(%rbx)
        and $-STATE_SAVE_ALIGNMENT, %RSP_LP
# endif
# ifdef REGISTER_SAVE_AREA
        sub $REGISTER_SAVE_AREA, %RSP_LP
#  if !DL_RUNTIME_RESOLVE_REALIGN_STACK
        cfi_adjust_cfa_offset(REGISTER_SAVE_AREA)
#  endif
# else
        # Allocate stack space of the required size to save the state.
#  if IS_IN (rtld)
        sub _rtld_local_ro+RTLD_GLOBAL_RO_DL_X86_CPU_FEATURES_OFFSET+XSAVE_STATE_SIZE_OFFSET(%rip), %RSP_LP
#  else
        sub _dl_x86_cpu_features+XSAVE_STATE_SIZE_OFFSET(%rip), %RSP_LP
#  endif
# endif
        # Preserve registers otherwise clobbered.
        movq %rax, REGISTER_SAVE_RAX(%rsp)
        movq %rcx, REGISTER_SAVE_RCX(%rsp)
        movq %rdx, REGISTER_SAVE_RDX(%rsp)
        movq %rsi, REGISTER_SAVE_RSI(%rsp)
        movq %rdi, REGISTER_SAVE_RDI(%rsp)
        movq %r8, REGISTER_SAVE_R8(%rsp)
        movq %r9, REGISTER_SAVE_R9(%rsp)
# ifdef USE_FXSAVE
        fxsave STATE_SAVE_OFFSET(%rsp)
# else
        movl $STATE_SAVE_MASK, %eax
        xorl %edx, %edx
        # Clear the XSAVE Header.
#  ifdef USE_XSAVE
        movq %rdx, (STATE_SAVE_OFFSET + 512)(%rsp)
        movq %rdx, (STATE_SAVE_OFFSET + 512 + 8)(%rsp)
#  endif
        movq %rdx, (STATE_SAVE_OFFSET + 512 + 8 * 2)(%rsp)
        movq %rdx, (STATE_SAVE_OFFSET + 512 + 8 * 3)(%rsp)
        movq %rdx, (STATE_SAVE_OFFSET + 512 + 8 * 4)(%rsp)
        movq %rdx, (STATE_SAVE_OFFSET + 512 + 8 * 5)(%rsp)
        movq %rdx, (STATE_SAVE_OFFSET + 512 + 8 * 6)(%rsp)
        movq %rdx, (STATE_SAVE_OFFSET + 512 + 8 * 7)(%rsp)
#  ifdef USE_XSAVE
        xsave STATE_SAVE_OFFSET(%rsp)
#  else
        xsavec STATE_SAVE_OFFSET(%rsp)
#  endif
# endif
        # Copy args pushed by PLT in register.
        # %rdi: link_map, %rsi: reloc_index
        mov (LOCAL_STORAGE_AREA + 8)(%BASE), %RSI_LP
        mov LOCAL_STORAGE_AREA(%BASE), %RDI_LP
        call _dl_fixup                # Call resolver.
        mov %RAX_LP, %R11_LP        # Save return value
        # Get register content back.
# ifdef USE_FXSAVE
        fxrstor STATE_SAVE_OFFSET(%rsp)
# else
        movl $STATE_SAVE_MASK, %eax
        xorl %edx, %edx
        xrstor STATE_SAVE_OFFSET(%rsp)
# endif
        movq REGISTER_SAVE_R9(%rsp), %r9
        movq REGISTER_SAVE_R8(%rsp), %r8
        movq REGISTER_SAVE_RDI(%rsp), %rdi
        movq REGISTER_SAVE_RSI(%rsp), %rsi
        movq REGISTER_SAVE_RDX(%rsp), %rdx
        movq REGISTER_SAVE_RCX(%rsp), %rcx
        movq REGISTER_SAVE_RAX(%rsp), %rax
# if DL_RUNTIME_RESOLVE_REALIGN_STACK
        mov %RBX_LP, %RSP_LP
        cfi_def_cfa_register(%rsp)
        movq (%rsp), %rbx
        cfi_restore(%rbx)
# endif
        # Adjust stack(PLT did 2 pushes)
        add $(LOCAL_STORAGE_AREA + 16), %RSP_LP
        cfi_adjust_cfa_offset(-(LOCAL_STORAGE_AREA + 16))
        # Preserve bound registers.
        PRESERVE_BND_REGS_PREFIX
        jmp *%r11                # Jump to function address.
        cfi_endproc
        .size _dl_runtime_resolve, .-_dl_runtime_resolve
#endif

_dl_fixup

_dl_runtime_resolve 中执行的最核心的函数就是 _dl_fixup 了,如下(这里也给出了一些相关的宏),需要注意的是,64 位下的 reloc_arg 就是 reloc_index。

/* We use this macro to refer to ELF types independent of the native wordsize.
   `ElfW(TYPE)' is used in place of `Elf32_TYPE' or `Elf64_TYPE'.  */
#define ElfW(type) _ElfW(Elf, __ELF_NATIVE_CLASS, type)
#define _ElfW(e, w, t) _ElfW_1(e, w, _##t)
#define _ElfW_1(e, w, t) e##w##t

/* All references to the value of l_info[DT_PLTGOT],
  l_info[DT_STRTAB], l_info[DT_SYMTAB], l_info[DT_RELA],
  l_info[DT_REL], l_info[DT_JMPREL], and l_info[VERSYMIDX (DT_VERSYM)]
  have to be accessed via the D_PTR macro.  The macro is needed since for
  most architectures the entry is already relocated - but for some not
  and we need to relocate at access time.  */
#ifdef DL_RO_DYN_SECTION
#define D_PTR(map, i) ((map)->i->d_un.d_ptr + (map)->l_addr)
#else
#define D_PTR(map, i) (map)->i->d_un.d_ptr
#endif

#if (!ELF_MACHINE_NO_RELA && !defined ELF_MACHINE_PLT_REL) || ELF_MACHINE_NO_REL
#define PLTREL ElfW(Rela)
#else
#define PLTREL ElfW(Rel)
#endif

/* The type of the return value of fixup/profile_fixup.  */
#define DL_FIXUP_VALUE_TYPE ElfW(Addr)
/* Construct a value of type DL_FIXUP_VALUE_TYPE from a code address
   and a link map.  */
#define DL_FIXUP_MAKE_VALUE(map, addr) (addr)
/* Extract the code address from a value of type DL_FIXUP_MAKE_VALUE.
 */
#define DL_FIXUP_VALUE_CODE_ADDR(value) (value)
#define DL_FIXUP_VALUE_ADDR(value) (value)
#define DL_FIXUP_ADDR_VALUE(addr) (addr)

/* Result of the lookup functions and how to retrieve the base address.  */
typedef struct link_map *lookup_t;
#define LOOKUP_VALUE(map) map
#define LOOKUP_VALUE_ADDRESS(map, set) ((set) || (map) ? (map)->l_addr : 0)
/* Calculate the address of symbol REF using the base address from map MAP,
   if non-NULL.  Don't check for NULL map if MAP_SET is TRUE.  */
#define SYMBOL_ADDRESS(map, ref, map_set)                                                                  \
    ((ref) == NULL ? 0                                                                                     \
                   : (__glibc_unlikely((ref)->st_shndx == SHN_ABS) ? 0                                     \
                                                                   : LOOKUP_VALUE_ADDRESS(map, map_set)) + \
                         (ref)->st_value)

#ifndef reloc_offset
#define reloc_offset reloc_arg
#define reloc_index reloc_arg / sizeof(PLTREL)
#endif
/* This function is called through a special trampoline from the PLT the
   first time each PLT entry is called.  We must perform the relocation
   specified in the PLT of the given shared object, and return the resolved
   function address to the trampoline, which will restart the original call
   to that address.  Future calls will bounce directly from the PLT to the
   function.  */
DL_FIXUP_VALUE_TYPE
attribute_hidden __attribute((noinline)) ARCH_FIXUP_ATTRIBUTE
_dl_fixup(
#ifdef ELF_MACHINE_RUNTIME_FIXUP_ARGS
    ELF_MACHINE_RUNTIME_FIXUP_ARGS,
#endif
    struct link_map *l, ElfW(Word) reloc_arg)
{
    // 获取目标文件的动态符号表
    const ElfW(Sym) *const symtab = (const void *)D_PTR(l, l_info[DT_SYMTAB]);
    // 获取目标文件的动态字符串表
    const char *strtab = (const void *)D_PTR(l, l_info[DT_STRTAB]);
    // 根据给定的偏移获取待重定位的表项
    const PLTREL *const reloc = (const void *)(D_PTR(l, l_info[DT_JMPREL]) + reloc_offset);
    // 依据得到的重定位表项获取待解析符号的符号信息
    const ElfW(Sym) *sym = &symtab[ELFW(R_SYM)(reloc->r_info)];
    const ElfW(Sym) *refsym = sym;
    // rel_addr 中最终存储着要解析的符号的地址
    // 即 *rel_addr = addr_of_symbol_to_be_resolved
    void *const rel_addr = (void *)(l->l_addr + reloc->r_offset);
    lookup_t result;
    DL_FIXUP_VALUE_TYPE value;
    /* Sanity check that we're really looking at a PLT relocation.  */
    // 确保待重定位表项的类型为 ELF_MACHINE_JMP_SLOT
    assert(ELFW(R_TYPE)(reloc->r_info) == ELF_MACHINE_JMP_SLOT);
    /* Look up the target symbol.  If the normal lookup rules are not
      used don't look in the global scope.  */
    // 判断符号的可见性
    if (__builtin_expect(ELFW(ST_VISIBILITY)(sym->st_other), 0) == 0)
    {
        // 获取符号的版本信息
        const struct r_found_version *version = NULL;
        if (l->l_info[VERSYMIDX(DT_VERSYM)] != NULL)
        {
            const ElfW(Half) *vernum = (const void *)D_PTR(l, l_info[VERSYMIDX(DT_VERSYM)]);
            ElfW(Half) ndx = vernum[ELFW(R_SYM)(reloc->r_info)] & 0x7fff;
            version = &l->l_versions[ndx];
            if (version->hash == 0)
                version = NULL;
        }
        /* We need to keep the scope around so do some locking.  This is
         not necessary for objects which cannot be unloaded or when
         we are not using any threads (yet).  */
        int flags = DL_LOOKUP_ADD_DEPENDENCY;
        if (!RTLD_SINGLE_THREAD_P)
        {
            THREAD_GSCOPE_SET_FLAG();
            flags |= DL_LOOKUP_GSCOPE_LOCK;
        }
#ifdef RTLD_ENABLE_FOREIGN_CALL
        RTLD_ENABLE_FOREIGN_CALL;
#endif
        // 查询待解析符号所在的目标文件的 link_map
        result = _dl_lookup_symbol_x(strtab + sym->st_name, l, &sym, l->l_scope,
                                     version, ELF_RTYPE_CLASS_PLT, flags, NULL);
        /* We are done with the global scope.  */
        if (!RTLD_SINGLE_THREAD_P)
            THREAD_GSCOPE_RESET_FLAG();
#ifdef RTLD_FINALIZE_FOREIGN_CALL
        RTLD_FINALIZE_FOREIGN_CALL;
#endif
        /* Currently result contains the base load address (or link map)
         of the object that defines sym.  Now add in the symbol
         offset.  */
        // 基于查询到的 link_map 计算符号的绝对地址: result->l_addr + sym->st_value
        // l_addr 为待解析函数所在文件的基地址
        value = DL_FIXUP_MAKE_VALUE(result,
                                    SYMBOL_ADDRESS(result, sym, false));
    }
    else
    {
        /* We already found the symbol.  The module (and therefore its load
         address) is also known.  */
        value = DL_FIXUP_MAKE_VALUE(l, SYMBOL_ADDRESS(l, sym, true));
        result = l;
    }
    /* And now perhaps the relocation addend.  */
    value = elf_machine_plt_value(l, reloc, value);
    if (sym != NULL && __builtin_expect(ELFW(ST_TYPE)(sym->st_info) == STT_GNU_IFUNC, 0))
        value = elf_ifunc_invoke(DL_FIXUP_VALUE_ADDR(value));
    /* Finally, fix up the plt itself.  */
    // 修复 plt 表
    if (__glibc_unlikely(GLRO(dl_bind_not)))
        return value;
    return elf_machine_fixup_plt(l, result, refsym, sym, reloc, rel_addr, value);
}

static inline ElfW(Addr)
elf_machine_fixup_plt (struct link_map *map, lookup_t t,
                       const ElfW(Sym) *refsym, const ElfW(Sym) *sym,
                       const ElfW(Rela) *reloc,
                       ElfW(Addr) *reloc_addr, ElfW(Addr) value)
{
  return *reloc_addr = value;
}
/* Return the final value of a PLT relocation.  On x86-64 the
   JUMP_SLOT relocation ignores the addend.  */
static inline ElfW(Addr)
elf_machine_plt_value (struct link_map *map, const ElfW(Rela) *reloc,
                       ElfW(Addr) value)
{
  return value;
}

参考


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